The immune system has two important branches, Innate and adaptive immunity. It plays an essential role for health and the start and progression of chronic inflammation.
Innate immunity constitutes the host's first line of defense against danger signals in a rapid and non-specific manner.
During the first hours and days of an infection, invasion by pathogens induces the activation of innate immune cells. Among theme macrophages, monocytes, or NK-cells or humoral factors such as complement.Macrophages and dendritic cells, together called antigen-presenting cells (APCs). They constitute the body’s main danger sensors and pioneer of an immune response. They constantly sample their environment, phagocytes all debris, present findings on their surface via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. After that, they send signals or interact with other immune cells when they encounter danger.
In contrast to the innate immune system, the adaptive immune response is antigen-specific. It includes cell-mediated (T cell) and humoral-mediated (B cell) immunities. They are both critical to drive tissue inflammation or repair. Antibody production, marking B cell response, play an important role in both innate and adaptive immunity.T and B cells (lymphocytes) rearrange their genomes and create unique antigen-specific receptors. These are T cell receptors (TCRs) and B cell receptors (BCRs). There are two main types of T cells: CD8 and CD4.
You can check the biomarker list included in this pathway, see below: