Cell polarity is a conserved evolutionary process found in most organisms, and is essential for many functions of cells and tissues including the initial establishment and subsequent maintenance of epithelial tissues, asymmetric cell division, cell motility, cell differentiation, morphogenetic movements, and tissue repair.
It is characterized by the asymmetric distribution of cellular proteins, membranes, organelles and processes within the cell. The regulation of this process is very important for cell function, and cells use various mechanisms to ensure appropriate abundance and activity of polarity determinants (1,2,,3,4).
Apico-basal polarity (epithelial cells). In mammalian epithelial cells, development of an apico-basal polarity
allows the organization of two well defined domains separated by tight junctions.
In slow migrating cells such as fibroblasts, astrocytes and epithelial cells, a polarized organization of intracellular molecules
and structures allow the formation and maintenance of a leading edge with membrane extensions and the retraction
of the rear of the cell. These regulations allow a sustained orientation of migration into the desired direction.
The localization and activity of polarity proteins is strongly regulated through kinases and phosphatases (2).Polarity of cell is crucial during embryogenesis, and for maintenance of tissue architecture and homeostasis, wound healing, immune responses ...