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Signaling Pathways title  Cytokines

Cytokines are a group of short proteins secreted by a variety of distinct cells (all cells of the immune system, as well as endothelial, epithelial and stromal cells) as a means of intercellular communication. They play an essential role in numerous physiological processes including, but not limited to, immune regulation and inflammatory responses through autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine mechanisms (1;2).

The cytokines, including interleukins, interferons, tumor necrosis factors, and chemokines, have a variety of pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in the body through a number of biochemical pathways and interactions (3).
Cytokines_Chemokines

 
Cytokines, chemokines and receptors, their effector T cells and inflammatory mechanisms (6)
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Signaling Pathways title  Cytokines and diseases

The cytokines, as well as their receptors are produced in the organisms under physiological and pathological conditions; they are involved in nearly every response to immunity, inflammation and infection stimuli; recently, they have been closely related to breast cancer metastasis (4;2).
Cytokines secreted by both tumor and immune cells could either induce tumor suppression or promote tumor progression (5).

Cytokines_Diseases

 
Interactions between tumor cells and infiltrating immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (5)
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(1) R.A.Prell, J.M.Tarrant. Cytokines: Role in Homeostasis and Disease States. (2018) 428-466..
(2) Lierova A et al. Cytokines and radiation-induced pulmonary injuries. J Radiat Res. (2018) 31.
(3) Monastero RN et Pentyala S. Cytokines as Biomarkers and Their Respective Clinical Cutoff Levels. Int J Inflam. (2017).
(4) Méndez-García LA et al. Breast Cancer Metastasis: Are Cytokines Important Players During Its Development and Progression? J Interferon Cytokine Res. (2018) 13.
(5) Setrerrahmane S, Xu H. Tumor-related interleukins: old validated targets for new anti-cancer drug development. Mol Cancer. (2017) 19;16(1):153.
(6) Kothur K et al. Cytokines in CSF cytokines/chemokines as biomarkers in neuroinflammatory CNS disorders: A systematic review. Cytokine. (2016);77:227-37.
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