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Dendritic cells, a type of antigen-presenting cell (APC).  Dendritic cells, a type of antigen-presenting cell (APC)

As part of the cells of the immune system, dendritic cells (DCs) are a class of bone‐marrow‐derived cells found in blood, tissues and lymphoid organs, and they are involved in triggering and regulating adaptive and innate immune responses. In adaptive immunity their role is to process extracellular and intracellular proteins and to present antigens in the context of MHC molecules to prime naive T cells. In the innate immunity, DC recognize and respond to pathogen‐associated and danger‐associated signals, shaping the acute inflammatory response (1,2). There are different types of DC each specialized to respond to particular pathogens and to interact with specific pathogens.
dendritic cells (DCs) are a class of bone‐marrow‐derived cells found in blood, tissues and lymphoid organs, and they are involved in triggering and regulating adaptive and innate immune responses

  Ontological overview and functional specialization of human DC. (a) DC are often depicted as a single ‘all purpose’ cell in diagrams of T-cell differentiation but each subset is specialized to make specific responses to pathogen or danger signals. Depending on the context, many different responses may be observed and selected principal functions of human plasmacytoid DC (pDC), conventional DC1 (cDC1) and cDC2 are depicted. (b) Ontological basis of DC, monocyte and macrophage classification. Haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) give rise to DC and monocyte-derived cells by distinct routes marked by differences in the relative expression of interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) and IRF4 as shown in schematic bivariate plots beneath. Monocytes are IRF4/8 low but can be induced to differentiate into monocyte-derived DC (mo-DC). Monocyte-derived macrophages are also ontologically distinct from many populations of long-lived resident macrophages derived from early myeloid progenitors (EMP) (2) .



In human peripheral blood, three main subsets of DC can be identified: plasmacytoid DC (pDC), and two types of conventional DC (cDC), i.e., CD1c(BDCA-1)+ cDC (cDC1) and CD141(BDCA-3)+ cDC (cDC2) (3).

Adipogenesis may lead to obesity, which causes many complications such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease.  Dendritic cells and diseases

As the most important antigen-presenting cells, DCs play pivotal roles in both triggering pathogenic autoimmune responses, and also maintaining immune tolerance (5). Plasmacytoid DC play an important role in the early phase of psoriasis by producing IFN-α, which causes the maturation of resident dermal DC and the differentiation of monocytes into inflammatory DC (3). DCs play a central role in initiating and exacerbating lymphoid mediated inflammation in periodontitis and fibrotic liver (4), and in Systemic lupus erythematosus (5). DCs are considered essential to the induction of anti-tumor immune responses (6).
(1) Cabeza-Cabrerizo M, et al. Dendritic Cells Revisited. Annu Rev Immunol. (2021);39:131-166.
(2) Collin M, et Bigley V. Human dendritic cell subsets: an update. Immunology. (2018);154(1):3-20.
(3) Kamata M, et Tada Y. Dendritic Cells and Macrophages in the Pathogenesis of Psoriasis. Front Immunol. (2022);13:941071.
(4) El-Awady AR, et al. Dendritic cells a Critical Link to Alveolar Bone loss and Systemic Disease Risk in Periodontitis: Immunotherapeutic Implications. Periodontol 2000. (2022);89(1):41-50.
(5) Liu J, Zhang X, Cao X. Dendritic cells in systemic lupus erythematosus: From pathogenesis to therapeutic applicationsJ Autoimmun. (2022);132:102856.
(6) Marciscano AE, Anandasabapathy N. The Role of Dendritic Cells in Cancer and Anti-Tumor Immunity. Semin Immunol. (2021 );52:101481.
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