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Angiogenesis requires the inclusion of several biomarkers such as VEGF family, bFGF, TGFβ family, HIF, angiopoietins (Ang-1), HGF, PDGF-BB, IGF-1, IGF-2 and NGF.  Angiogenesis pathway, a sprouting of capillaries from the existing vascular system

The angiogenesis pathway, or the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels, is responsible for a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. Under normal conditions, angiogenesis is involved in the process of embryonic development, tissue repair and organ regeneration.

The angiogenesis includes a wide range of processes. Among them, vasodilation, endothelial permeability increase, basal membrane disintegration, endothelial cell proliferation, migration, tubule formation, and endothelial cell differentiation and maturation.

  • Molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis pathway

Researchers have extensively revealed a variety of factors involved in neoangiogenesis. The main protagonists are: Vascular endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), various members of the Transforming Growth factor beta (TGFβ) family and hypoxia (Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, HIF)... In addition to other angiogenic factors like the angiopoietins, (Ang-1); hepatocyte growth factor (HGF); Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB); Insulin-like growth factor family (IGF-1, IGF-2) and the Neurotrophins (NGF).

Angiogenesis's mechanism is extremely intricate. It is the outcome of how cells interact with proteolytic enzymes, the extracellular matrix, and cytokines.

One of the earliest events in formation of new blood vessels is the degradation of the vascular basement membrane and the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM).

Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including MMP-2, -3, and -9 play an important role in this system. They associate with tumor progression, including invasion, metastasis, growth and migration..

Integrins are the principle adhesion receptors used by endothelial cells to interact with the extracellular environment and are necessary for cell migration, proliferation, and survival.
Angiogenesis

 
Angiogenic signaling pathway and angiogenesis (3)
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Angiogenesis plays a major role in tumor growth and progression  Relationship between angiogenesis pathway and diseases

It is important to maintain strict control over the angiogenesis pathway during development and adulthood. An imbalance between angiogenetic and inhibitory factors causes dysregulation of angiogenesis in pathological conditions, which leads to major pathologies.

Abnormal formation of new blood vessels is the basis of a variety of pathological processes. Among them tumor metastasis, atherosclerotic plaque formation, macular degeneration, retinopathy, ischemic disease, cardiovascular diseases, chronic inflammatory skin …(1-5).

(1) Ma Q, et al. Role of melatonin in controlling angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. Angiogenesis. (2020);23(2):91-104.
(2) Huang YJ, Nan GX. Oxidative stress-induced angiogenesis. J Clin Neurosci. (2019);63:13-16.
(3) Mukherjee A, et al. Recent Advancements of Nanomedicine towards Antiangiogenic Therapy in Cancer. Int J Mol Sci. (2020);21(2):455.
(4) Braile M, et al. VEGF-A in Cardiomyocytes and Heart Diseases. Int J Mol Sci. (2020);21(15):5294.
(5) Lee HJ, et al. Angiogenesis in Chronic Inflammatory Skin Disorders. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Nov 7;22(21):12035.

  • Biomarker list

You can check the biomarker list included in this pathway, see below:

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