DNA methylation forms one of multiple layers of epigenetic regulation. Epigenetic corresponds to the modification of gene expression which do not arise from modifications of the DNA sequence. The most important events are : DNA methylation at CpG islets and post-translational modification of histones (methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation…).
DNA methylation also includes the process of hydroxymethylation, specifically involving cytosine (5hmC). This form of methylation adds another dimension to the intricate world of epigenetics.
Epigenetic events are strongly influenced by environmental factors, stress, and diets.
Exploring these events can help scientists to understand gene regulation, activation of signaling pathways and explain many physiological (like development and growth) or pathological processes.
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