DNA methylation forms one of multiple layers of epigenetic regulation. Epigenetic corresponds to the modification of gene expression which do not arise from modifications of the DNA sequence. The most important events are : DNA methylation at CpG islets and post-translational modification of histones (methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation...). Another event of methylation in DNA is the hydroxymethylation of cytosine (5hmC), which represent another layer in the epigenetic complex.
Epigenetic events are strongly influenced by environmental factors, stress and diets.
Exploring these events can help scientists to understand gene regulation, activation of signaling pathways and explain many physiological (like development and growth) or pathological processes.
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