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Cytokines are a group of short proteins secreted by a variety of distinct cells (all cells of the immune system, as well as endothelial, epithelial and stromal cells) as a means of intercellular communication. They play an essential role in numerous physiological processes including, but not limited to, immune regulation and inflammatory responses through autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine mechanisms (1;2).

The cytokines, including interleukins, interferons, tumor necrosis factors, and chemokines, have a variety of pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in the body through a number of biochemical pathways and interactions (3).

Cytokines, chemokines and receptors, their effector T cells and inflammatory mechanisms (6)


The cytokines, as well as their receptors are produced in the organisms under physiological and pathological conditions; they are involved in nearly every response to immunity, inflammation and infection stimuli; recently, they have been closely related to breast cancer metastasis (4;2).
Cytokines secreted by both tumor and immune cells could either induce tumor suppression or promote tumor progression (5).


Interactions between tumor cells and infiltrating immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (5)

(1) R.A.Prell, J.M.Tarrant. Cytokines: Role in Homeostasis and Disease States. (2018) 428-466..
(2) Lierova A et al. Cytokines and radiation-induced pulmonary injuries. J Radiat Res. (2018) 31.
(3) Monastero RN et Pentyala S. Cytokines as Biomarkers and Their Respective Clinical Cutoff Levels. Int J Inflam. (2017).
(4) Méndez-García LA et al. Breast Cancer Metastasis: Are Cytokines Important Players During Its Development and Progression? J Interferon Cytokine Res. (2018) 13.
(5) Setrerrahmane S, Xu H. Tumor-related interleukins: old validated targets for new anti-cancer drug development. Mol Cancer. (2017) 19;16(1):153.
(6) Kothur K et al. Cytokines in CSF cytokines/chemokines as biomarkers in neuroinflammatory CNS disorders: A systematic review. Cytokine. (2016);77:227-37.


You can custom your own SignArrays® with the genes of interest of your choice, according to your project, you just have to download and complete our Personalized SignArrays® information file and send it at [email protected]

You can check the biomarker list included in this pathway, see below: