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Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is induced by at least two distinct signaling pathways, extrinsic and intrinsic.  Apoptosis pathway, a programmed process of cell death

Apoptosis pathway, also named programmed cell death, is a fundament process required for morphogenetic homeostasis during early development and in pathophysiological conditions (1).

The Apoptosis may be induced by a variety of agents, including low doses of radiation, hypoxia, heat, cytotoxic drugs or more specialized anti-cancer molecules (4).

Apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, neurodegeneratives diseases, diseases involving the eyes and cancer.  Apoptosis pathway and diseases

The apoptosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson, Alzheimer, Huntington, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), diseases involving the eyes (Glaucoma, Retinal diseases, Age related macular degeneration, Retinitis dystrophies, Dry eye disease…) (2), in cancer (1)
Recent studies show that dysregulation of apoptosis contributes to multidrug resistance (4).


Overview of apoptosis signalling pathways and the effects of pro-survival signalling, immune cells and the tumour microenvironment (3)

(1) Kashyap D et al. Intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis: Role in cancer development and prognosis. Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol. (2021);125:73-120.
 Abdulhussein D et al.  Apoptosis in health and diseases of the eye and brain. Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol. (2021);126:279-306.

 Carneiro BA, El-Deiry WS. Targeting apoptosis in cancer therapy. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. (2020);17(7):395-417.

 Neophytou CM et al. Apoptosis Deregulation and the Development of Cancer Multi-Drug Resistance. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Aug 28;13(17):4363.
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