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Signaling Pathways title  Cell cycle

The cell cycle is a ubiquitous, complex, irreversible and highly regulated process that is involved in the sequential events during which a cell duplicates its genetic materials, grows, and divides into two daughter cells (1,2).
The transition through the different phases of cell cycle is tightly controlled by the cyclins (cyc), their partners Serine/ Threonine cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), the CDK inhibitors (CKI) and the retinoblastoma family of proteins (pRb) (3).

Model of Cell Cycle Progression (1)

Signaling Pathways title  Cell cycle & cancer

Errors occurring at different steps of the cell cycle can lead to apoptosis or cause genetic instability promoting cancer aggressiveness (1). It has been extensively described that in cancer cells many of the inhibitory mechanisms controlling cell cycle progression are lost due to inactivation or mutations in tumor suppressors or overexpression of oncogenes that result in upregulation of cyclins-CDKs (3).
The cell cycle is “switch on and of” mechanism in terms of certain checkpoints, each one of which is dependent on the completion of prior events. The alterations of cell cycle genes disrupt this switch mechanism, leading to the uncontrolled cell division, considered to be a hallmark of cancer (4).
(1) Icard P et al. Interconnection between Metabolism and Cell Cycle in Cancer.
Trends Biochem Sci. (2019);44(6):490-501.
(2) Zou T et Lin Z. The Involvement of Ubiquitination Machinery in Cell Cycle Regulation and Cancer Progression. Int J Mol Sci. (2021);22(11):5754.
(3) Leal-Esteban L & Fajas L. Cell cycle regulators in cancer cell metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. (2020);1866(5):165715.
(4) Caglar HO & Biray Avci C. Alterations of cell cycle genes in cancer: unmasking the role of cancer stem cells. Mol Biol Rep. (2020);47(4):3065-3076.
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