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Signaling Pathways title  Oxidative Stress

Oxidative stress is defined as a disturbance in the balance between the production of free radicals (ROS) and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants. The imbalance between those two fractions may potentially lead to cell damage at molecular level (1). Free radicals derived from oxidative stress are required at low concentrations for many important physiological functions, such as muscle contraction and drug detoxification (5).

Signaling Pathways title  Oxidative stress and DNA damage

Oxidative stress induces DNA damage by several mechanisms, including:
  • nucleotide base modification,
  • single strand break, or double strand break,
  • inhibiting DNA - formamidopyrimidine (FAPY) glycosylase,
  • alters the mRNA translational process and impairs protein synthesis
  • alters cellular proteostasis
  • formation of lipid hydroperoxides and aldehydes, which contribute to cellular toxicity. Lipid oxidation of plasma and organelle membranes alters membrane permeability and fluidity (3).

 
A proposed model of how a favorable redox environment prevents vascular endothelial dysfunction and possibly the risk
for cardiovascular disease in an uncontrolled and controlled redox environment (6).


Signaling Pathways title  Oxidative stress and diseases

The intracellular accumulation of oxidized biomolecules leads to cellular dysfunction and various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and inflammation (5), chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and male infertility (2), cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (3), several age-related conditions (ie chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer), including sarcopenia and frailty (4).
(1) Pruchniak MP, Aražna M & Demkow U. Biochemistry of Oxidative Stress. Adv Exp Med Biol. (2016) 878:9-19.
(2) Ihsan AU & al. Role of oxidative stress in pathology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and male infertility and antioxidants function in ameliorating oxidative stress. Biomed Pharmacother. (2018) 106:714-723.
(3) Peña-Oyarzun D & al. Autophagy and oxidative stress in non-communicable diseases: A matter of the inflammatory state?. Free Radic Biol Med. (2018) 20;124:61-78.
(4) Liguori I & al. Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases. Clin Interv Aging. (2018) 26;13:757-772.
(5) Simioni C & al. Oxidative stress: role of physical exercise and antioxidant nutraceuticals in adulthood and aging. Oncotarget. (2018) 30; 9(24): 17181–17198.
(6) Varadharaj S & al. Role of Dietary Antioxidants in the Preservation of Vascular Function and the Modulation of Health and Disease. Front Cardiovasc Med. (2017) 1;4:64.
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