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Signaling Pathways title  AMPK a central regulator of energy homeostasis

The AMPK signaling pathway, with its highly conserved and adaptive enzyme complex 5′-Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase, plays a key role in cellular and systemic energy homeostasis (1).

AMPK supports numerous processes required for energy and redox homeostasis, including mitochondrial biogenesis, autophagy, glucose and lipid metabolism, TCA cycle, cell cycle progression (1,2). Activation of AMPK is regulated by diverse physiological and pathological conditions such as metabolic stress, caloric restriction, exercise, aging and obesity (2).
AMPK substrates act in specific subcellular locales to rewire metabolism

AMPK substrates act in specific subcellular locales to rewire metabolism (3)

AMPK regulates downstream signals based on changes in the surrounding energy reservoir and expressed in many tissues, including kidney, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and hypothalamus. The activated AMPK and its downstream signals can achieve energy homeostasis by promoting ATP production via stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose transport, and fatty acid (FA) oxidation, while reducing ATP consumption via inhibiting FA, protein, and glycogen synthesis (4).

Signaling Pathways title  AMPK Signaling Pathway and diseases

Dysregulation of AMPK activity is linked to aging process and various human diseases including metabolic syndrome, stroke, cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity-induced renal injury (2,4).
(1) Aslam M, Ladilov Y. Emerging Role of cAMP/AMPK Signaling. Cells. (2022);11(2):308.
(2) Hsu CC et al. AMPK signaling and its targeting in cancer progression and treatment. Semin Cancer Biol. (2022);85:52-68.
(3) Trefts E, Shaw RJ. AMPK: restoring metabolic homeostasis over space and time. Mol Cell. (2021);81(18):3677-3690.
(4) Li Z et al. A minireview: Role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in obesity-related renal injury. Life Sci. (202);265:118828.
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