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Signaling Pathways title  Inflammation

Inflammation is the adaptive response to various stimuli (toxins, viruses, bacteria, ischemia, or necrotic tissue, trauma ...) to which we are exposed (1).
In addition, inflammation may develop as a result of immune dysregulation in autoimmune or malignant disorders such as rheumatologic disorders, inflammatory bowel disease... (2).

Signaling Pathways title  Inflammation and diseases

The recent studies for immune response to SARS-CoV-2 have shown that the critical point where progression of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ensues appears to center on loss of the immune regulation between protective and altered responses due to exacerbation of the inflammatory components (3).


Schematic representation of SARS-CoV-2-driven signaling pathways and potential drug targets (4)

Other diseases in which inflammation is involved: malignant tumours and atherosclerotic plaques, alzheimer, pulmonary disease, periodontitis, age and in psychiatric disorders including major depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (5-8).
(1) Miguel Lourenço Varela et al. Acute Inflammation and Metabolism. Inflammation. (2018);41(4):1115-1127.
(2) Tomas Ganz. Anemia of Inflammation. N Engl J Med. (2019);381(12):1148-1157.
(3) Luis F García. Immune Response, Inflammation, and the Clinical Spectrum of COVID-19. Front Immunol. (2020);11:1441.
(4) Michele Catanzaro et al. Immune response in COVID-19: addressing a pharmacological challenge by targeting pathways triggered by SARS-CoV-2. Signal Transduct Target Ther. (2020);5(1):84.
(5) Ning Yuan et al. Inflammation-related biomarkers in major psychiatric disorders: a cross-disorder assessment of reproducibility and specificity in 43 meta-analyses. Transl Psychiatry. (2019);9(1):233.
(6) Estella A Newcombe et al. Inflammation: the link between comorbidities, genetics, and Alzheimer's disease. J Neuroinflammation. 2018;15(1):276.
(7) Christina H Liu et al. Biomarkers of chronic inflammation in disease development and prevention: challenges and opportunities. Nat Immunol. 2017;18(11):1175-1180.
(8) Peter Libby and Sebastian Kobold. Inflammation: a common contributor to cancer, aging, and cardiovascular diseases—expanding the concept of cardio-oncology. Cardiovasc Res. 2019;115(5): 824–829.
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