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Angiogenesis requires the inclusion of several biomarkers such as VEGF family, bFGF, TGFβ family, HIF, angiopoietins (Ang-1), HGF, PDGF-BB, IGF-1, IGF-2 and NGF.  Angiogenesis

Angiogenesis, the formation of blood vessels, occurs in a coordinated series of steps, which can be divided into a destabilization, a proliferation, and a maturation phase.

Extensive studies have revealed a variety factors involved in neoangiogenesis, the main protagonists are: Vascular endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), various members of the Transforming Growth factor beta (TGFβ) family and hypoxia (Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, HIF)... Other factors that have angiogenic properties include the angiopoietins, (Ang-1); hepatocyte growth factor (HGF); Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB); Insulin-like growth factor family (IGF-1, IGF-2) and the Neurotrophins (NGF). One of earliest events in formation of new blood vessels is the degradation of the vascular basement membrane and the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including MMP-2, -3, and -9 play an important role in this system, and are associated with tumor progression, including invasion, metastasis, growth and migration.
Integrins are the principle adhesion receptors used by endothelial cells to interact with the extracellular environment and are necessary for cell migration, proliferation, and survival.

Angiogenesis plays a major role in tumor growth and progression  Angiogenesis and diseases

Abnormal formation of new blood vessels is the basis of a variety of pathological processes including tumor metastasis, atherosclerotic plaque formation, macular degeneration, retinopathy, ischemic disease, cardiovascular diseases, chronic inflammatory skin …(1,2,4,5).


Angiogenic signaling pathway and angiogenesis (3)

(1) Ma Q, et al. Role of melatonin in controlling angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. Angiogenesis. (2020);23(2):91-104.
(2) Huang YJ, Nan GX. Oxidative stress-induced angiogenesis. J Clin Neurosci. (2019);63:13-16.
(3) Mukherjee A, et al. Recent Advancements of Nanomedicine towards Antiangiogenic Therapy in Cancer. Int J Mol Sci. (2020);21(2):455.
(4) Braile M, et al. VEGF-A in Cardiomyocytes and Heart Diseases. Int J Mol Sci. (2020);21(15):5294.
(5) Lee HJ, et al. Angiogenesis in Chronic Inflammatory Skin Disorders. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Nov 7;22(21):12035.
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